The meaning of the Need of Human is something that relates to the things that a Human requires to survive or to live.
Needs of Human Beings
- Physiological Needs
- Safety Needs
- Love and Belonging
- Self – Actualization
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing, shelter, and physical activity) the human body simply cannot continue to function.
Physiological Needs Include:
- Sound sleep
- Mental satisfaction
Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans, Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements.
Oxygen is possibly our most basic human need. People can begin to experience brain damage after as few as five minutes without oxygen. There are several things that may prevent you from getting the oxygen you need. Environmental risks such as high amounts of smoke, high altitudes or carbon monoxide can prevent you from breathing in oxygen. Some medical issues may prevent your body from receiving oxygen like cardiac arrest, stroke, drowning, and others. Without a consistent supply of oxygen, you can experience a condition called cerebral hypoxia which affects our brains. After 15 minutes without oxygen, the brain damage can be so severe that most people will not recover.
If you have a good water supply the next essential need is that of sustenance. A body that does not have food can survive for quite a long time by subsisting on the fat reserves in the body and, eventually, the glycogen reserves in the liver and the proteins in the muscles. During the first two to three days without food, the body will depend solely on the fat reserves to run the muscles of the body. Unfortunately, these fatty acids can’t cross the blood-brain barrier.
The brain relies on glycogen reserves to send glucose to the brain. After day three, the liver begins to synthesize ketones (short-strand fatty acids) that can cross the blood-brain barrier. The ketone stage can last for up to two weeks. Once the fat reserves are used up, the body will begin breaking down the musculature into proteins that can be converted into amino acids that are then transformed into glucose. Muscles break down quickly, within one week. Once this process has been completed there is no other internal source of energy and the body dies.
Clothing is absolutely necessary for everybody. It is a symbol of making a human being a social being. It is against civilization and mortality to remain naked. Besides this, clothing is important to protect our body from hot, cold, rain, dust, sun, etc. We may be the victims of different diseases if we don’t wear clothes according to seasons and need. Clothing also determines the level of standard of living of the people in the modern days.
Protection from the Elements
A shelter that helps to keep your body at a constant temperature is also a necessity. This could also include appropriate clothing. When a person is exposed to the elements, water loss is increased. Cold temperatures and high winds valuable moisture as quickly as high temperatures can cause sweat-related loss. A shelter should consist of a place to make a fire to create heat as well as protection from the wind and rain.
Without the ability to keep a constant temperature, a person runs the risk of hypothermia or heat stroke. A person’s normal temperature is 98.7 degrees Fahrenheit. If the core temperature drops to 91.4, the body will go unconscious. At 86.0 degrees, the body loses the ability to control internal temperature. At 82.4 degrees, there is complete muscle failure.
On the other end of the spectrum, a temperature of 107.6 degrees results in a breakdown of the central nervous system. At slightly over 111 degrees, the brain overheats and causes death. Extreme temperature fluctuations can cause hallucinations and illogical behavior, which can cause a person to fail to take the proper steps to keep himself alive.
For a long time sleep was not considered a basic human need. Studies on sleep deprivation helped to change this in the 20th century. In terms of human needs, sleep is one of the five most important elements. Sleep deprivation can cause a myriad of problems ranging from decreased body temperature to cognitive impairment and hallucination.
Although the mechanisms of sleep are not well understood, the problems associated with lack of sleep are. Headaches can begin as soon as 24 hours after missing sleep. 72 hours in, memory is impaired and temporal and spatial distortion starts to occur. After 96 hours without sleep, cognition is markedly impaired. After 144 hours, hallucinations ensue and there is a considerable loss of attention and manual dexterity.
The longer a person goes without sleep the less coherent thought patterns become. This lack of clear thinking can be detrimental on its own, if coupled with a lacking in any of the other basic needs areas it could be life-threatening.
Mental satisfaction is even related to greater work performance, less perceived stress, and fewer turnover intentions.
Other than the air we breathe, water is the most essential component for human survival. It is estimated that a person cannot survive for more than 3-4 days without water.
In hot weather, it is recommended that the average person needs to consume two quarts of water a day to replace the amount lost due to sweating, respiration, and excretion to maintain a balance of body fluids. In moderate climates, you may be able to get by on less. Some foods can also provide you with water, though you should avoid food and drink that could dehydrate you.
When the hydration balance is unable to be maintained the body will start to go through the dehydration process. A 2.5 percent loss in water volume in a person leads to a 25 percent reduction in blood volume. This means the blood gets thicker and the heart has to work harder to pump nutrients throughout the body. This lower blood volume also reduces flow to the extremities, leading to numbness in the fingers and toes. The thicker blood also has a harder time making its way through the small capillaries in the brain. The lack of oxygen to parts of the brain can make it impossible to concentrate or focus for any period of time.
The length of time one can survive without water depends on activity level and environmental temperature. Higher activity will invariably reduce the life span, as will higher temperatures. With no water, the maximum length of time a person can survive is 10 days. Starting at 80 degrees Fahrenheit life expectancy is reduced to 9 days. With every five-degree increase in temperature, the life span decreases a day.
Safety and Security Needs Include
- Personal security
- Financial security
- Health and well-being
- Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts
Safety needs in Maslow’s hierarchy refer to the need for security and protection. When we have our physiological needs for food and water met, our safety needs dominate our behavior. These needs have to do with our natural desire for a predictable, orderly world that is somewhat within our control. Once a person’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety – due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc.
people may (re-) experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety – due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities – these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to be found in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe.
Central to your quest for a fulfilled life is your personal safety. Careful forethought and preparation can help ensure your safety at home and while you’re out. Here are some ideas about how you can stay safe.
- Basic Safety
- Car Safety
- Bike Safety
- Identity Theft
- Stay informed. Learn about the crime rates in your area. Sign up for notifications and safety alerts.
- Put important phone numbers on speed dial. Program the local police or campus police contact information into your phone. Also, keep a number for a cab or safe ride on your phone.
- Be aware of your surroundings. Walk assertively and never walk alone at night.
- Ride safely. Use a safe ride service, a cab, a bus, or a ride from a friend.
- If you live on a school campus, know the locations of emergency call phones (they tend to be blue)
- Trust your instincts. If you feel uncomfortable in a situation, something is probably wrong. Change what you are doing and get to a more secure location.
- Know your route before you go for a jog, walk, or drive somewhere. If walking or jogging., pick a path with high visibility.
- Report any suspicious activity immediately.
- It is ok to ask a group of people to walk with you if you think you are being followed. You can also walk into any store or restaurant.
- Know your neighbors.
- Do not keep spare keys hidden near your door. Instead, leave them with a friend or neighbor you trust.
- Don’t prop any apartment doors or dorm doors open. People entering should have a key to get in.
- Always lock your door, even if you are coming right back.
- If you’re going away, lock all windows and doors, close window curtains, and set a timer for lights so that it appears you are home.
- Do not let strangers into your building if they do not have a key or access card.
- Keep sliding doors blocked by placing a pole in the sliding track to keep doors from opening wide enough for a person to get in.
- When moving in or out of your place, there is an opportunity for theft. Minimize this by not placing any boxes, furniture, or suitcases in an unwatched or out-of-sight area. Also, lock the door every time you step out (and always take your keys with you).
- When parking, put possessions in the trunk in a place that is not visible.
- Make sure your car has enough gas or electricity.
- Bring a (fully charged) cell phone with you in case you need to call for help.
- Call a tow truck for a lift if your car breaks down. Never take a stranger’s offer to help.
- If you hit something, park your car and check out the situation. You may need to call for help or leave insurance information.
- Always park in a safe area that is well-lit.
- You may need to get them fixed at a bike shop.
- Make sure your brakes work. When riding at night, attach a light to your bike so cars can see you.
- Always wear a helmet.
- Know your state’s laws. Some states require you to register your bike. If it is registered, keep • this record. It can be used to file a police report if your bike is lost or stolen.
- Obey traffic laws. Ride on the right-hand side. Pedestrians have the right of way
- Be aware of potential cars when passing by driveways or parking lots,
- Lock your bike. Lock both the rear wheel and frame to a bike rack. You may wish to lock the front wheel to the frame to prevent wheel theft.
- Mail: You do not want your personal information to get into the wrong hands. Rather than using the home mailbox, use the postal service mailboxes for sending mail, in particular bill payments. If you are out of town, have the post office hold your mail until you get back.
- Internet: When making an online purchase, use a secure site. If you must make a payment, use a credit card rather than a debit card. Use anti-virus software and firewalls to protect your computer.
- Shred all documents: that have financial or personal information. This includes credit applications, insurance forms, and bank statements.
- Do not give your Social Security Number (SSN) out when you can avoid it. Do not put your SSN on checks or credit receipts. You can usually give a business an alternate set of information if they ask for an SSN.
If identity theft does happen, you should:
- Contact the three major credit bureaus and have them place a fraud alert on your file.
- Close all accounts that may have been accessed.
- File a police report and give a copy to the credit bureaus for proof of the incident.
Financial security refers to the peace of mind you feel when you aren’t worried about your income is enough to cover your expenses. It also means that you have enough money saved to cover emergencies and your future financial goals.
Tips for Achieving Financial Security:
When it’s time for you to retire, will you be able to afford it? Almost all of the research conducted on the subject, over the last few years, shows that most individuals are unable to demonstrate financial readiness for their retirement years. This only serves to underline the fact that saving for retirement is a challenging process that requires careful planning and follow-through. Here we review some helpful tips that should help you on your way to a comfortable retirement.
Start as soon as You Can: It is obvious that it is better to start saving at an early age, but it is never too late to start- even if you are already close to your retirement years – because every penny saved helps to cover your expenses. If you save $ 200 every month for 40 years at a 5 % interest rate, you will have saved significantly more than an individual who saves at the same rate for 10 years. However, the amount saved over the shorter period can go a long way in helping to cover expenses during retirement. Also, keep in mind that other areas of financial planning, such as asset allocation, will become increasingly important as you get closer to retirement. This is because your risk tolerance generally decreases as the number of years in which you can recuperate any losses goes down.
Treat Your Savings as an Expense: When it’s time for you to retire, will you be able to afford it? Almost all of the research conducted on the subject, over the last few years, shows that most individuals are unable to demonstrate financial readiness for their retirement years. This only serves to underline the fact that saving for retirement is a challenging process that requires careful planning.
Save as Much as You Can in a Tax-Deferred Account: Contributing amounts earmarked for your retirement to a tax-deferred retirement account deters you from spending those amounts on impulse because you are likely to face tax consequences and penalties. For instance, any amount distributed from a retirement account may be subject to income taxes the year in which the distribution occurs, and if you are under age 59-1 / 2 when the distribution occurs, the amount could be subject to a 10 % early – distribution penalty (excise tax). If you have enough income, consider whether you can increase the amount you save in tax-deferred accounts. For instance, in addition to saving in an employer-sponsored retirement plan, think about whether you can also afford to contribute to an individual retirement account (IRA), and whether the IRA should be a Roth IRA or a Traditional IRA.
Diversify Your Portfolio: The old adage that tells us that we shouldn’t put all of our eggs in one basket holds true for retirement assets. Putting all your savings into one form of investment increases the risk of losing all your investments, and it may limit your return on investment (ROI). As such, asset allocation is a key part of managing your retirement assets. Proper asset allocation considers factors such as the following:
- Your age – This is usually reflected in the aggressiveness of your portfolio, which will likely take more risks when you’re younger, and less the closer you get to retirement age.
- Your risk tolerance – This helps to ensure that, should any losses occur, they occur at a time when the losses can still be recuperated.
- Whether you need to have your assets grow or produce income.
Consider All of Your Potential Expenses in Your Financial Plan: When planning for retirement, some of us make the mistake of not considering expenses for medical and dental costs long – term care, and income taxes. When deciding how much you need to save for retirement, make a list of all the expenses you may incur during your retirement years. This will help you to make realistic projections and plan accordingly.
Budget: Saving a lot of money is great, but the benefits are eroded or even nullified if it means you have to use high-interest loans to pay your living expenses. Therefore, preparing and working within a budget is essential. Your retirement savings should be counted among your budgeted recurring expenses in order to ensure that your disposable income is calculated accurately.
Periodically Reassess Your Portfolio: As you get closer to retirement and your financial needs, expenses, and risk tolerance change, strategic asset allocation must be performed on your portfolio to allow for any necessary adjustments. This will help you ensure that your retirement planning is on target.
Reassess Your Expenses and Make Changes Where Possible: If your lifestyle, income, and/or fiscal responsibilities have changed, it may be a good idea to reassess your financial profile and make adjustments where possible, so as to change the amounts you add to your retirement nest egg. For instance, you may have finished paying off your mortgage or the loan for your car, or the number of individuals for which you are financially responsible may have changed. A reassessment of your income, expenses, and financial obligations will help to determine if you need to increase or decrease the amount you save on a regular basis.
Consider Your Spouse: If you are married, consider whether your spouse is also saving and whether certain expenses can be shared during your retirement years. If your spouse hasn’t but those of your spouse as well. been saving, you need to determine whether your retirement savings can cover not only your expenses.
Work with an Experienced Financial Planner: Unless you are experienced in the field of financial planning and portfolio management, engaging the services of experienced and qualified important decisions you make. a financial planner will be necessary. Choosing the one who is right for you will be one of the most.
Health and Well
An employer approach to improving employees ‘ health. Wellness programs include activities such as company-sponsored exercise, weight-loss competitions, educational seminars, tobacco cessation programs, and health screenings that are designed to help employees eat better, lose weight and improve their overall physical health. Wellness programs often involve financial incentives for employees, such as lower health – insurance premiums or gift cards.
Safety Nets Against Accidents / Illness and their Adverse Impacts
The safety net is not an organized national entity, but rather a composite of different agencies, organizations, and individuals in each community across the country (Baxter and Mechanic, 1997).
The mix of financing, the concentration of organizational responsibility for care for low-income and uninsured groups, and the demand for uncompensated care are different in every community. The mix of services also differs depending on the community’s provider base, its commitment to serving low-income and uninsured groups, and individual providers ‘ ability to participate.
Love and Belonging
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. This aspect involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as:
- Family (good and supportive)
Friendship: Friendship is a close association between two people marked by feelings of care, respect, admiration, concern, love, or liking.
Humans are social animals wired for connection, and even animals that are genetically similar to us like the great apes form friendships, Consequently, social isolation can be extremely damaging to people. People who report having friends are generally happier and feel better about themselves. while people with few or no friends may feel more isolated, frustrated, or angry.
Friendship plays such a significant role in happiness and well-being that some people seek mental health counseling for advice about how to keep or make friends. Conflict in friendships can be extremely distressing and the loss of a friend can spark immense grief. Some people use online or print services to finding friends. Many organizations are dedicated to helping people make new friends, and some classified sites even offer their services to people looking to make friends.
Intimacy: Per social psychologists, intimacy refers to a process of interaction in which social partners, as a result of sharing personal and private thoughts and feelings, come to feel understood, appreciated, and cared for by each other. This definition is deliberately narrower than the many common language usages of this term. In everyday language, intimate and intimacy are often used as synonyms for closeness, sexual activity, love, marriage, privacy, or relatively intense forms of physical engagement (such as touching or standing very close to another person). When intimacy exists, each of these may or may not be involved.
Family: Family is an integral part of every human, Every man is incomplete without family. Man is a social animal; in his life family plays an important role. A family means children all are living together. man, his parents, his wife, and his children all are living together.
All family members share equal parts while shouldering responsibilities within the family. This will make the family complete and all members happy. This is very much required in society because a good family makes a good society and a good society makes a good country.
A happy man will work happily, behave well with others, and completes all his responsibility towards society and the nation. A family is behind a happy man.
There are numerous advantages of a family. These are:
- Family makes a man a complete human being.
- Men need someone close to share their happiness and problems. This gap is fulfilled by a family.
- Similarly, people living within a family are happier than people who live alone. Because family can cure your many problems but a lonely person can’t.
- Living within a family makes all members protected and secure from outside conflicts.
- Children within a family are more active, quick learners, and smart due to elders/seniors guiding them.
- Love, strength, honesty, and confidence are building within a child who is brought up under the guidance of elders. This only happens in a family.
- values of family will impact a growing child within society.
Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants)
All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others.
Self – Actualization
“What a man can be, he must be.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person’s full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This is a broad definition of the need for self – actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific. For example, one individual may have a strong desire to become an ideal parent, in another, it may be expressed athletically, and in another, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions. As mentioned before, in order to reach a clear understanding of this level of need one must first not only achieve the previous needs, physiological, safety, love, and esteem, but master these needs.
- Understanding the Needs of Self and Body
- Understanding the Human Being as the Coexistence of Self and Body
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- Understanding the Body as an Instrument of I
- Basic Human Activities