A building structure should satisfy the basic requirements in design and performance:
Strength in terms of the ability of a material to take the load coming over its safety. It must have sufficient strength to withstand the loading. Must have sufficient stiffness so that deflection does not disturb from an aesthetic point of view. Strength depends upon soil capacity because any building structure is strong but the soil settles down and strength depends on the quality of work and quality of the material.
It refers to the resistance to large deformation. If any structure fails because of not proper design and not proper curing. Proper design of reinforced cement concrete is most important because the water-cement ratio is very important for stability.
Stability refers to dimensional changes caused due to
- Creep due to applied load.
- Expansion or contraction due to temperature and moisture.
COMFORT AND CONVENIENCE
- Opening of windows and doors.
- Prospect proper sense, must give a pleasing appearance.
- Groping of rooms.
- Sufficient space and roominess
- Proper orientation or ventilation
- Economically feasible
RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE PENETRATION AND DAMP PREVENTION
The structure has to be kept dry.
The presence of moisture in a building determines the strength of materials. Moisture gets into the building due to rain penetration through roofs, walls, floors, etc.
Prevention is the use of DPC material and cavity walls.
Adequate planning of the building, safe insulation, made of noncombustible materials. Availability of fire brigades, alarm equipment, and fire extinguishing is set up.
It can be achieved by:-
- Use of thick exterior walls.
- Use of cavity wall construction.
- Use of shading devices like chajjas.
- Use of heat insulation materials slag wool, rock wool, etc. for filling air spaces in construction materials.
Sound insulation can be achieved through the following means
- Adopting constructional measures.
- Planning ageist indoor and outdoor noises.
- Reducing sound transmission through wall partitions (i.e. indoor noise)
- Reducing sound transmission through floors (i.e. indoor noise in the vertical direction)
- Sound insulating materials such as compressed straw slabs, cork slabs, and slag wool use of an insulating layer of 1.5 cm to 3 cm is usually sufficient.
DAYLIGHTING AND VENTILATION
Good daylighting must be sufficient to create a pleasing environment. The aggregate area for natural light is 30 – 33 % of the floor area. Proper ventilation is necessary to create air movement, removing bacteria.
Durability is defined as the length of time over which it will be habitable. However, the probable life of the building depends upon building material, degree of maintenance, and proper design.
PROTECTION AGAINST VERMINS
Vermins are white ants and can cause major damage to the building. It is being injected under pressure into wooden materials. Use of chlordane, of 0.5 to 1% is being used.
The consideration of economic aspects at every stage of planning, design, construction, and maintenance is very important.