Technology for waste management – Serious environmental degradation occurs due to open, uncontrolled, and poorly managed waste dumping in many metropolitan cities of developing countries. Where approximately 90% of the waste is disposed of in open dumping areas. Recently developed countries have implemented the visionary concept of zero waste which is encouraging the latest technologies of MSWM which on the other hand in most developing countries waste management is a matter of the least concern, which is causing severe environmental and health issues in those countries.
The sustainable management of municipal solid waste can reduce short and long-term environmental and human health hazards. The article concluded that proper implementation of its latest technologies in the sector of MSW management can play a very important role in providing a pollution-free and sustainable environment.
Technology for Waste management
- Underground collection system
- web-based GIS technology
- waste bin monitoring technology
- compact garbage collection trucks
- Multi-compartment bins
- optical sorting
- Deinking technology for paper recycling
- Biodegradable and degradable plastic
Underground collection system
New technologies for waste storage are underground and semi-underground storing systems in these technology waste bins or containers are being replaced by underground collection points. This includes the placement of plastic containers in an excavation of 2.3m with the only inlet in the environment. The collection and transportation of waste are carried out using a special type of truck.
The technology is beneficial for regions with extremely hot climate conditions as the waste would be stored underground at relatively low temperatures. On the other hand, the technology requires less maintenance and is more aesthetically acceptable.
Web-based GIS technology
Over the last year, GIS technology has gained popularity in almost every field of life coupling GIS technology with waste collection became popular over the past few years in developed countries through this municipalities can manage the entries waste cycle from producing point to disposal areas by optimizing and automating every step of the cycle.
According to the Italian and European case studies, the implementation of web-based GIS technology optimized the waste collection and source separation for recycling to become efficient by up to 80%. As GIS can model world landmarks and streets, it can play an important role in the waste collection sector. GIS in a combination with other software can give information regarding the most reliable routes, the number of residents, the number of contracts, Their validation, and potential frauds.
Waste bin monitoring technology using a global system of mobile (GSM)
The combination of Zigbee technology and GSM is the latest trend in the field of waste collection. In this technology sensors are placed in public garbage bins to detect a certain optimum level of waste as the garbage reaches the threshold level, an indication will be transferred to the controller which will further give an indication to the driver of the collection truck for emptying the bin urgently. The indication will be sent to the driver through SMS and using GSM.
Compact garbage collection trucks
In many developing countries, because of the narrow and congested roads, small garbage collection trucks are used latest technologies introduced garbage compactors in collector trucks in order to increase the collection capacity of vehicles. With continuous modification currently, these trucks have achieved a high compression rate as they can carry 1.5 times more waste as compared to flat pile trucks.
The technology does not only increase collection capacity but also increases fuel efficiency which is more environmentally and economically feasible. Researchers are been working to introduce electric motor drivers and hybrid-type collection trucks to overcome problems like greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
Recently, developed countries including Sweden are using multi-compartment bins for source segregation of waste. These types of waste bins have separate compartments for different types of waste through this organic paper waste and recyclables can be segregated on the spot of generation, while recyclables can be recycled or reused, as through this method contamination can be avoided.
The technology has emerged rapidly in the last few years different types of plastic, composite and other waste are being shorted with the help of color-sensitive cameras, UV sensors, and infrared spectroscopy with the help of sensors the position of different waste components are identified this type of short is most commonly used for glass waste. The latest technology included optical shorting with a laser which is relatively expensive. According to studies, this technology can reach a purity of 99.7% for flint glass.
Deinking technology for paper recycling
In developed countries deinking technology was introduced a year ago. It is still the latest in some developing countries. Through this process, paper ink is removed from recycled paper slurry in Europe the annual production of de-linked pull has to be increased by up to 15% frequent recycling of newspaper and printed white paper can challenge the quality of the paper. According to studies newspapers can be recycled up to 5 times.
Biodegradable and degradable plastic
Arise of new technology plastic which is able to degrade 90% of itself in 90 days has resolved many issues regarding plastic disposal biodegradable plastic can be introduced to composting or anaerobic digestion along with organic waste, in order to give production output much starch-based plastic, has been reported as biodegradable.
The technology involves treating the waste with steam at 140֯ – 160֯ C for 30 – 40 min. this sterilizes the waste and the residue is subjected to screening. Where waste is separated on the basis of weight organic fiber is segregated from glass and girt. Metals and plastics will send for recycling. Organic fiber has many uses including land applications and as fiber in the construction industry or in the making of refused derived fuel. The residue of the process is then sent for disposal at the landfill site.
A thermal waste treatment process in which unprocessed waste is burned at high temperatures is commonly known as incineration. Sufficient quality of air is needed in order to oxidize the feedstock or the fuel for combustion, waste has exposed to 850֯ C, and then it is combustible material which is known as incinerator bottom ash.