In this post, we will study about the physical and chemical Classification of matter. Also we will study about numerous topics related to matter like state’s of matter, elements, compounds, mixtures, etc. At last we will solve some questions related to the topics.
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What is Matter?
Matter is any thing that has mass and occupies space. Everything around us is made up of matter. A matter can be classified on the basis of physical and chemical properties.
Physical Classification of Matter
Properties such as state, melting point, boiling points etc are referred as physical properties. On the basis of this, the matter is classified as solid, liquid and gas.
(i) Solid State : In solid state, the particles are held very close to each other in an orderly fashion and there is no freedom to move. Solids have definite volume and definite shape. For example, stone, rocks, salt, sugar etc.
(ii) Liquid State : In liquid state, the particles are close to each other but they can move around. Liquids have definite volume and indefinite shape. For example, water, oil, milk, alcohol etc.
(iii) Gaseous State: In gaseous state, the particles are far away from each other so they can move freely. In gaseous state, there is neither definite shape nor definite volume. e.g., O2, N2, CO2 etc.
Chemical Classification of Matter
The chemical classification of matter depends upon the its composition.
(A) Pure Substances: The substances which have fixed composition are called as pure substance. These are divided into two parts.
(i) Element: An element consists of only one type of particles. These can not be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary physical and chemical methods.Example: H, He, O, S, Na, Cu, Hg etc.
The different elements are made up of different types of atoms and some elements are also made up of more than one atom for example O2, S2, N₂ etc. Today 118 elements have been investigated, out of these, 92 elements are naturally occurring and remaining are man made or synthetic. The elements are further divided into three classes:
(1) Metals: Metals are those elements which are fusible, ductile, solid and having high boiling and melting point and are also good conductors of heat and electricity.Example: Gold, Silver, Zinc, Iron, etc.
(2) Non-Metals: Such elements which do not show the metallic properties as hardness, mechanical adaptability and ability to conduct electricity and heat. These can not be converted into sheet and wires.Example: Sulphur, Phosphorus etc.
(3) Metalloid: An element which contains properties of both metal and non metal is called metalloid. Example: Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth etc.
(ii) Compounds: A compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements. In other words, compound is formed when different types of atoms are chemically combined in a certain proportion. A compound may be decompose into two or more types of atoms by physical and chemical processes. Example : H₂O, CO2, NaCl, CH4 etc.
(B) Mixture : A mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not chemically combined. It can be separated by physical means and often retains many of the properties of its compound. Generally, mixtures are two types:
(i) Homogeneous Mixture : It is a type of mixture in which the composition is uniform and every part of the solution has the same properties. Mixture of salt and water, mixture of water and alcohol etc.
(ii) Heterogeneous Mixture : In heterogeneous mixture, the composition is not uniform through out and some time the different component can be seen, as there are two or more phases present. Example : Mixture of Sugar and Salt, mixture of sand and water, mixture of sulphur and carbon etc.
Important Questions related to Matter
1. Give two benefits of chemistry?
(I) to increase production of foods. (ii) in medical field
2. What is the destructive form of chemistry?
Production of atom bomb, hydrogen bomb, poisonous gases, T.N.T are destructive forms of chemistry.
3. In which fields, principles of chemistry are applied?
The principles of chemistry are used in meteorology and computer.
4. What is matter?
Anything which has mass and volume is known as matter
5. What is tiny particle of matter?
Tiny particles of matter is known as atom.
6. What are the physical states of matter?
Physical matter exist in three states- Solid, liquid and gas.
7. What is mixture ?
A mixture contain two or more substances present in any proportion.